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Examples of Footnotes and/or Endnotes in Chicago Style

Please note: Footnotes and/or Endnotes appear in the same format.

1William Beahen and Stan Horrall, Red Coats on the Prairies, The North-West Mounted Police, 1886-1900 (Regina: PrintWest Publishing Services, 1998), 1.

2Francis, Images, 66.  From Ballantyne’s “The Dog Crusoe and His Master.”

3Ibid., 37.

4Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in American History (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920), 9. According to Turner, each American frontier was won by a series of Indian wars.

5Carl Berger, The Writing of Canadian History: Aspects of English-Canadian Historical Writing since 1900 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986), 118.

6Ibid., 118. Turner also believed that pioneers were “emancipated” from metropolitan influences, and that required they foster a spirit of individualism and self-determination.

7Turner, Frontier, 23.

8Berger, Canadian History, 119.

9Ibid., 119.

10Gerald Friesen, “Recent Historical Writing on the Prairie West,” in Contemporary Approaches to Canadian History, ed., Carl Berger (Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman, 1987), 52-64.

11George F.G. Stanley, “Western Canada and the Frontier Thesis,” in Canadian Historical Association Report, 1940, 104-114.

12George F.G. Stanley, The Birth of Western Canada: A History of the Riel Rebellions (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1960).

13J.M.S. Careless, “Frontierism, Metropolitanism and Canadian History,’ in Canadian Historical Review, vol., 35 (1954), 1-21. See also Berger, Canadian History, 176.

14Francis, Images, 194.

15Ibid., 195.

16Ibid., 196, note 10.

17Paul Voisey, Vulcan: The Making of a Prairie Community (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988), 5.

18Louis A. Knafla, “Violence on the Western Canadian Frontier: A Historical Perspective,” in Violence in Canada: Sociopolitical Perspectives, ed., Jeffrey Ian Ross (Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 1995), 10-39.

19Ibid., 11-12.

20Warren M. Elofson, Cowboys, Gentlemen and Cattle Thieves: Ranching on the Western Frontier (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2000).

21Warren M. Elofson, Frontier Cattle Ranching in the Land and Times of Charley Russell (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2004), 80.

22Paul C. Nigol, “Discipline, Discretion and Control: The Private Justice System of the Hudson’s Bay Company in Rupert’s Land, 1670-1770.” Doctoral Thesis, University of Calgary, 2001. Nigol’s bibliography covers published articles, monographs and the primary sources utilized.

23Roderick G. Martin, “Macleod at Law: A Judicial Biography of James Farquharson Macleod, 1874-94,” in People and Place: Historical Influences on Legal Culture, eds., Jonathan Swainger and Constance Backhouse (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2003), 38-40.

24R.C. Macleod, The North-West Mounted Police and Law Enforcement, 1873-1905 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976), 168.

25Ibid., 35.

26William Parker, William Parker Mounted Policeman, ed., Hugh A. Dempsey (Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, 1973).

27R.B. Nevitt, A Winter at Fort Macleod, ed., Hugh A Dempsey (Calgary: Glenbow-Alberta Institute, McClelland and Stewart West, 1974).

28Commissioner’s Reports, Opening Up the West, Being the Official Reports to Parliament of the Activities of the Royal North-West Mounted Police Force from 1874-1881 (Toronto: Coles Publishing Company, 1973), 5-28.

29Opening Up the West, 34-56.

30Ibid., 59.

31Colonel S.B. Steele, Forty Years in Canada: Reminiscences of the Great North-West with Some Account of His Service in South Africa (Toronto: McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart Limited, 1915). 

32Captain R. Burton Deane, Mounted Police Life in Canada: A Record of thirty-one Years’ Service (London: Cassell and Company, Ltd., 1916).

33Roderick G. Martin, “The Common Law and Justices of the Supreme Court of the North-West Territories, 1887-1907.” Master’s Thesis, University of Calgary, 1997. See also, Re: Nettleship 4 TLR 148.

34Sir Cecil E. Denny, The Law Marches West, ed., W.B. Cameron (Toronto: J.M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., 1972). In April 1888 Denny also became a part of the judicial record when he was convicted and fined $100 in default 6 months hard labour by NWMP Inspector Likely at Fort Macleod, for having illegal intoxicants in his possession.

35John G. Donkin, Trooper and Redskin in the Far North-West: Recollections of Life in the North-West Mounted Police, Canada, 1884-1888 (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington Ltd., 1889). 

36John Peter Turner, The North-West Mounted Police, 1873-1893, vol. I. & II (Ottawa: King’s Printer and Controller of Stationary, 1950).  Stuart Taylor Wood was the ninth commissioner of the force, and commanded from March 1938 – April 1951.

37E.C. Morgan, “The North-West Mounted Police, 1873-1883” Master’s Thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 1970, 150-215.

38Royal Canadian Mounted Police Booklet (Calgary: Glenbow-Alberta Institute, 1972), 80-100. Since this publication there have been additional romance novels added to the list, however, these are not the subject of this examination.

39Supra, note 19.

40Ronald Atkin, Maintain The Right: The Early History of the North West Mounted Police, 1873-1900 (Bristol: Western Printing Services Ltd., 1973).

41Beahen and Horrall, Red Coats.

42Captain Ernest J. Chambers, The Royal North-West Mounted Police, A Corp History (Montreal and Ottawa: Mortimer Press, 1906).

43A. L. Haydon, Riders of the Plains: A Record of the Royal North-West Mounted Police of Canada, 1873-1910 (London: Melrose, 1910) and R.G. Macbeth, Policing the Plains: Being the Real-life Record of the Famous Royal North-West Mounted Police (London: Hodderand and Stroughton, 1922).

44Hugh A. Dempsey, ed. Men in Scarlet. (Calgary: McClelland and Stewart, 1976).

45Margaret Luckhurst, North West Mounted Police: Early History of the R.C.M.P. (Lethbridge: Southern Printing, 1974). 

46W.P. Ward, “The Administration of Justice in the North-West Territories, 1870-1887.” Master’s Thesis, University of Alberta, 1966.

47Martin, “Macleod at Law,” 37-59.

48Martin, “Macleod at Law,” and “Common Law.” See Chapter 4, “The Civil Law Courts” currently in press. Contemporary interpretation would suggest that NWMP courts were not, or never could be, courts of first instance. The NWT Act (1873) and Administration of Justice NWT Act, chap. 35, and 1877 NWT Act amended, however, provided that SMs and JPs would act as summary trial judges, or two JPs or a JP and SM in more serious matters in the first instance. Also, NWMP Annual Reports, 1874-98.

48In the Northwest Territories, a judge was a “Stipendiary Magistrate.” In 1906, the position of “Police Magistrate” was instituted in the new Province of Alberta (see An Act Respecting Police Magistrates and Justices of the Peace, S.A. 1906c.13). In 1954, the title became simply “Magistrate” (see an Act to Amend the Magistrates Justices Act S.A.1954 c.58). In 1970, the position was given its present title of “Provincial Judge” (see Provincial Judges and Justices Act, S.A. 1970 c.71). Thanks to his honour, retired Provincial Court Judge Kenneth J. Plomp for providing this information.

© Dr. R.G. (Rod) Martin
State and Legal Studies (History)
Athabasca University

Updated September 10 2014 by Student & Academic Services

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